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little few+ some any

这四种形式也都能用做代词使用,或单独使用或与of连用: -sugar? -要糖吗? -a little,please. -请给一点儿。 only a few of these are any good. 这其中只有几个用得着。 b a litile,a few(形容词和代词) a little指少量或者说话人认为少的量; a few指小数目或者说话人认为小的数目。 把only放在a little/a few之前,是为了强调说话人认为该数量的确很小。 only a few of our customers have accounts. 我们的顾客中只有少数人是记账的。 但是把quite放在a few之前就大大增大了这个数量: i have quite a few books on art. 我有不少关于艺术的书。(许多书) c little和few(形容词和代词): little和few意为很少或没有,几乎具有否定意义: there was little time for consultation. 几乎没有时间商量。 little is known about the side-effects of this drug. 这种药物有些什么副作用,现在还不大清楚。 few towns have such splendid trees. 有这么好看的树木的城市不多。 little和few的这种用法主要限于书面英语(可能由于在日常会话中little和few容易被误认为是 a little/a few)。因此,在日常会话中little和few通常由hardly any替代,也可以由动词否定式+much/many替代: we saw little. 我们没有看到什么。相当于: we saw hadly anything./we didn’t see much. 我们几乎什么都没有看到。 tourists come here but few stay overnight. 有游客到这里来,但很少有人过夜。相当于: tourists come here but hadly any stay overnight. 有游客到这里来,但几乎没有人在这里过夜。 但如果little和few由so,very,too,extremely,comparatively,relatively等词修饰,就可以较自由地使用。 fewer(比较级)也可以更自由地使用。 i’m unwilling to try a drug i know so little about. 我不乐意服我知之甚少的药。 they have too many technicians,we have too few. 他们的技术员太多,而我们的又太少。 there are fewer butterflies every year. 蝴蝶的数量每年都在减少。 d a little/little(副词) 1 a little可以: (a)与动词连用: it rained a little during the night. 夜里下了一点儿雨。 they grumbled a little about having to wait. 他们为要等候抱怨了几句。 (b)与具有“令人不快的”意义的形容词和副词连用: a little anxious有点儿着急 a little annoyed有点儿不耐烦 a little unwillingly有点儿不情愿地 a little impatiently有点儿不耐心地 (c)与形容词和副词的比较级连用: the paper should be a little thicker. 这纸应该再厚一点儿。 can’t you walk a little faster? 你不能走得快一点儿吗? 在(b)中可以用 rather来代替a little。 rather也可以用于比较级之前(参见第42节),但a little更常用一些。 在英语口语中a bit可以在上述例子中用以替代a little。 2 在比较正式的文体中,little主要同better或more连用: his second suggestion was little(=not much) better than his first. 他的第二个建议比第一个好不了多少。 he was little(= not much) more than a child when his father died. 他父亲去世时,他差不多还是个孩子。 在正式的英语中,little可用在某些动词如 expect,know,sus-pect,think等之前: he little expected to find himself in prison. 他几乎没有料到自己会进监狱。 he little thought that one day… 他几乎从不曾想过有一天…… 注意像little-known和little-used这样的形容词的用法: a little-known painter一个藉藉无名画家 a little-used footpath一条几乎没有人走的小道 **************************************************************** some any 1)由some,any,no組成的復合代詞:someone,something,somebodyanyone,anybody,anythingno one,nobody,nothing這些代詞隻能用作單數,用法與some,any,no相似。 【例如】 No one in the family could understand Jack.There is something important in today's newspaper.Do read it carefully.There is nothing important in the meeting.We'd better stop now.everyone,someone,anyone與every one,some one,any one用法不同。前者有所有格,而後者沒有。everyone,someone,anyone指人,而every one,some one,any one可以指人,也可指物。 【例如】 I have no interest in anyone's personal things. Don't you believe that I do this for everyone's sake? These books,any one of which is of great value,are written by a famous modern writer. Anyone has the right to vote if he is an adult citizen. 2)由some,any,no組成的復合副詞:somewhere,nowhere,anywheresomehow,anyhowsomewhat 【例如】 I am sure you will find him somewhere near the school.I went nowhere during the vocation.Anyhow,we must try our best to save him.(anyhow:by any possible means)We must get money for the rent somehow.(somehow:in some way,by one means or another)I am somewhat disappointed at his decision.(somewhat:in some degree)
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