• 11894


  • 1





介系詞的分類 從介系詞本身的結構來看,介系詞可以分成四個種類: 1. 簡單介系詞 at in on since from 2. 複合介系詞 as for 至於 as to 關於 out of 從,出自 into 進入 onto 到...上面去 3. 二重介系詞 from under 從...的下面 from behind 從...的後面 until after 直到...之後 from among 從...當中 4. 介系詞片語 according to 根據 ahead of 在...之前 apart from 在...之外 because of 由於 by means of 以...之手段 by way of 作為 從介系詞本身的意義來看,介系詞可以分成十個種類: 1. 表示時間的介系詞 about, around, before, by, at, after, in, on, around, between, during, for, from, since, till, until, within. 2. 表示地點的介系詞 about, at, in, on, over, through, across, along, around, before, between, beyond, down, up, to, toward, under, near. 3. 表示方式的介系詞 by bus 乘公共汽車 see with one's own eyes 親眼看... write in ink 用墨水寫... on foot 步行,徒步 He looked at me without expression. 他毫無表情地看著我。 4. 表示原因的介系詞 for:He was punished for stealing. 他因偷竊而被懲罰。 from:suffer from a cold 患傷風 of:be ashamed of 因...而感到羞愧 with:shake with cold 因寒冷而發抖 5. 表示關於的介系詞 about 關於(一般情況) on 關於(理論,學術) of :a long story of adventure 一個長篇冒險故事 6. 表示比較的介系詞 as:His face is as black as coal. 他的臉跟煤炭一樣黑。 like:He saw a number of small hard things like stones. 他看見一些像石頭一樣的小小的堅硬的東西。 7. 表示除外的介系詞 but:He works every day but Sunday. 除星期天外,他每天都工作。 except:We all went except Tom. 除湯姆外,我們都去了。 except for:The letter is good except for the spelling. 這封信除了拼寫錯誤之外,還算是很通順的。 besides(besides中文譯成,除...外,實則表示包含在內。) Besides English, he studies German and French. 除英語外,他還學習德語和法語。 8. 表示條件的介系詞 with:With all his faults, I like him. 儘管他有種種缺點,我還是喜歡他的。 without :Man cannot live without water. 如果沒有水人就不能活。 9. 表示結果的介系詞 to:She tore the letter to pieces. 她把信撕個粉碎。 10. 表示對於的介系詞 for:Sea air is good for the health. 海上的空氣對健康有好處。 to:To her it was all unusual. 這一切對她都很不平常。 時間介系詞辨異 by 與 before "before + 某時"只是單純的指"在某時以前"; "by + 某時"指"不遲於某時"。 The sun will rise before six o'clock. 太陽會在六點之前出來。 The sun will rise by six o'clock. 太陽最遲在六點出來。 to, till與until 1. 和from的搭配 from...to from...till from...until He teaches from midday to four o'clock. 他從中午教書一直到四點。 They are out together with their friends from morning till night. 他們從早到晚和朋友一起在外面。 It was cold from Christmas until April. 從聖誕節直到四月份天氣一直是冷的。 2. 不和from的搭配 till until They talked till dawn. 他們交談直到天亮。 Wait until tomorrow. 等到明天。 3. 和not搭配 (如果和not搭配,不要用to) not until not till He didn't return till ten o'clock. 直到十點他才回來。 He didn't go until night. 直到夜晚他才走。 since和from 1. since自從...以來(包含有從過去某一時間開始一直延續到現在之意) 常用於現在完成時。 I haven't been home since 1995. 從一九九五年以來我都沒有回過家。 2. from從...(有:從...開始之意) I shall be in New York one week from today. 從今天算起我要在紐約和你在一起一個星期。 from March to June從三月份到六月份 from morning till night從早到晚 from now on從現在起 from then on從那時起 during和for 1. for達...(多長)時間 We have been here for a week. 我們在這兒已有一周之久。 2. during在...期間 He swims every day during the summer. 夏天期間他天天去游泳。 during常和"the"連用。有時也可見for和"the"連用,但是在這 種情況下for不是表示時間,而是表示目的; Are you stopping at this hotel for the night? 你要在這個旅館過夜嗎? in和during in和during這兩個單字有時好像可以互換。但是,實際上這兩個介系詞 分別表達不同的內含。 No visitors called in your absence. No visitors called during your absence. 你不在的時候沒有人來訪。 in 側重表達動作方面; during 側重表達時間方面,"在這段時間,而不是在那段時間。" 方位介系詞辨異 at, in, on at:原則上,指位置的某一點。 They built a nest at the top of the tree. 它們在樹梢築巢。 There's a police station at the end of the street. 在街道的盡頭有一個警察局。 on:原則上,指在位置的某一平面上(包括向上的平面,向下的平面,以及側面的表面。) How beautiful the moonlight on the lake is! 湖上的月色多美呀! What's that black mark on the ceiling? 天花板上的那個黑點是什麼? You used to have a picture on the wall, didn't you? 過去牆上有一幅畫,是嗎? in:相對at,in用於比較大的地點。 This is the only shop in the village. 這是這個村子唯一的店舖。 He enjoys traveling in every quarter of the globe. 他喜歡到世界各地旅遊。 arrive in和arrive at arrive in:到達國家,都市 arrive at:到達村莊,地點 at work, at play, at table, at school at常用來表示從事某種活動。 at work:在工作 at play:在做遊戲 at table:在吃飯 at school:在求學 at the corner, in the corner, on the corner in the corner:在內角 at the corner:在外角 on the corner:在轉角上(如交叉口的房屋,可以體會到表面之意。) in bed, on the bed, on a bed in bed:在床上正式睡覺,臥病在床 on the bed:指人在床上休息,東西放在床上 on a bed:指人在床上休息,東西放在床上 介系詞片語的定義 介系詞 + 名詞(或者代名詞)=介系詞片語 介系詞的受詞 一.名詞作介系詞的受詞 We often play football in the afternoon. 我們經常在下午踢足球。 二.代名詞作介系詞的受詞 No one knows except you and me. 除了你和我之外,沒有人知道這件事。(作介系詞的受詞的代名詞用受格) 三.動名詞作介系詞的受詞 Thank you for helping me. 謝謝你幫了我的忙。(作介系詞的受詞的動詞應採用動名詞) 四.介系詞片語作介系詞的受詞 A man came out from behind the door. 一個人從門後出來。 五.「疑問詞+不定詞」作介系詞的受詞 They failed to agree on where to spend their holidays. 到哪裡度假他們無法取得一致意見。 六.從句作介系詞的受詞 I quite agree with what you say. 我很贊成你所說的話。 介系詞片語的位置 一.位於動詞之後表示位置 She lives in Shanghai. 她住在上海。 The children are playing in the street now. 現在孩子們在街上玩。 二.位於動詞之後表示方向 He went into the kitchen. 他到廚房裡去。 三.位於句首表示突出、對照 In the garden everything was so beautiful. 在花園裡一切都是那麼美麗。 四.位於句首,倒裝主謂 Behind me lay the fields. 在我的後面是一片田野。 On the desk is a bag. 桌子上有一個袋子。 五.位於名詞之後,用於限制前面的名詞 The apple on the plate is for you. 盤子上的蘋果是給你的。 介系詞片語的語法功能 一.作補語 The book you want is on the table. 你要的那本書在桌子上。 二.作受詞補語 I saw a tall man under the tree. 我看到樹下有個高個子的男人。 三.作定語(後置定語) The man under the tree is my father. 樹下的那個男人是我爸爸。 四.作狀態語 1.作地點狀態語 We live in Hangzhou. 我們住在杭州。 2.作時間狀態語 She got here at four. 她在4點到這兒的。 3.作方式狀態語 They came here by train. 他們乘火車來這兒。 4.作原因狀態語 The game was postponed because of rain. 因為下雨運動會被推遲了。 5.作條件狀態語 There will be no living things without water. 沒有水就沒有生物。 6.作目的狀態語 He ran for shelter. 他跑去避雨。 7.作讓步狀態語 They play football in spite of the rain. 他們冒雨踢足球。 8.作程度狀態語 To what extent would you trust them? 你對他們信任程度如何? 介系詞和名詞的搭配 at all at dinner at first at home at hospital at last at least at night at noon at once at school at table at the back of at the beginning of at the end of at the foot of at the same time at work by bus by hand by spaceship by the end of by the way by train day by day one by one in a hurry in a low voice in a minute in a short while in a word in all in bed in Englishin fact in front of in life in line in no time in order in public in silence in space in surprise in the day in the distance in the end in the middle of in the street in the sun in the tree in time in town in trouble of course on duty on foot on one hand… on the other hand on one's way to on the left on the other side of on the radio on the right on time on top of out of sight out of work to one's joy to one's surprise to this day with a smile